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      【鉴定中药材名金银花

      【药材来源鉴定】本品为忍冬科植物忍冬Lonicera japonica Thunb.、水忍冬(毛花柱忍冬)Lonicera dasystylaRehd.、菰腺忍冬(红腺忍冬)Lonicera hypoglauca Miq.或华南忍冬(山银花)Lonicera confusa DC.的干燥花蕾或带初开的花。该植物为半常绿性藤本,到冬季仍有部分茎叶存在,可忍受冬寒,故名忍冬。其花初开时呈白色,经2~3天后变为黄色。在同一植株上,常见先开的金黄色花与后开的银白色花相兼而生,交相辉映,故名金银花。

      【药材历史考证】金银花,原名忍冬,其始载本草为《名医别录》。《新修本草》云:“此草藤生,绕覆草木上,苗茎赤紫色,宿者有薄白皮膜之,其嫩茎有毛。叶似胡豆,亦上下有毛。花白蕊紫。”《本草纲目》曰:“忍冬在处有之。附树延蔓,茎微紫色,对节生叶。叶似薜荔而青,有涩毛。三四月开花,长寸许,一蒂两花二瓣,一大一小,如半边状,长蕊。花初开者,蕊瓣俱色白,经二三日,则色变黄。新旧相参,黄白相映,故呼金银花,气甚芬芳。四月采花,阴干;藤叶不拘时采,阴干。”并有附图。根据以上本草图文考证,与忍冬相符。

      【植物形态鉴定

      1.忍冬:半常绿木质缠绕藤本,长可达9米。幼枝暗红褐色,密被黄褐色开展的硬直糙毛、腺毛和短柔毛,下部常无毛。叶对生,叶柄长4~8毫米,密被短柔毛;叶片纸质,通常卵形至矩圆状卵形,有时卵状披针形,稀卵圆形或倒卵形,长3~10厘米,基部圆形或近心形,全缘(极少有1至数个钝缺刻),有糙缘毛,小枝上部叶通常两面均密被短糙毛,下部常无毛。花成对腋生,总花梗明显,密被短柔毛,并夹杂腺毛;苞片大,叶状,卵形至椭圆形,长2~3厘米;小苞片顶端圆形或截形,长约1毫米,为萼筒长的1/2~4/5;萼筒长约2毫米,无毛,顶端5齿裂,萼齿顶端尖而有长毛;花冠白色,后变黄色,长2~6厘米,唇形,花冠筒稍长于唇瓣,很少近等长,外被多少倒生的开展或半开展糙毛和长腺毛,上唇4浅裂,裂片顶端钝,下唇不裂,带状而反曲;雄蕊5,雌蕊1,花柱与雄蕊均伸出花冠外;子房下位。浆果球形,直径6~7毫米,熟时蓝黑色,有光泽;种子卵圆形或椭圆形,褐色,长约3毫米。花期4~7月,果期7~11月。

      2.水忍冬与忍冬主要区别特征:苞片极小,三角形,长1~2毫米,远比萼简短;花冠长2~3.5厘米;雄蕊与花冠近等长;花柱伸出花冠外,花柱下方113处有柔毛或无毛。花期3~4月,果期8~10月。

      3.菰腺忍冬与以上二种主要区别特征:叶下面具明显的无柄或有极短柄的黄色至橘红色蘑菇形腺体;苞片线状披针形;小苞片长约为萼筒的1/3。花期4~6月,果期10~11月。

      4.华南忍冬与以上三种主要区别特征:苞片披针形,长1~2毫米;萼筒外面被短糙毛,萼齿外面密被短柔毛。花期4~5月,果熟期10月。

      以上四种植物分类检索表:

      1.叶下面无的蘑菇形腺体。

       2.苞片大,叶状,卵形至椭圆形,长达3厘米;总花梗明显;幼枝暗红褐色………………………忍冬

       2.苞片极小,长1~2毫米。

        3.萼筒外面被短糙毛;苞片披针形;雄蕊伸出花冠外,比唇瓣稍长…………………华南忍冬

        3.萼筒外面无毛,稍有白粉;苞片三角形;雄蕊与花冠近等长…………………………水忍冬

      1.叶下面具明显的无柄或有极短柄的黄色至橘红色蘑菇形腺体………………………菰腺忍冬

      【药材性状鉴定

      1.忍冬:呈棒状,上粗下细,略弯曲,长2~3厘米,上部直径约3毫米,下部直径约1.5毫米面黄白色或绿白色,贮久色渐深,密被短柔毛。偶见叶状苞片。花萼绿色,先端5裂,裂片有毛,长约2毫米。开放者花冠筒状,先端二唇形;雄蕊5个,附于筒壁,黄色;雌蕊1个,子房无毛。气清香,味淡、微苦。

      2.红腺忍冬:长2.5~4.5厘米,直径0.8~2毫米。表面黄白色至黄棕色,无毛或疏被毛。萼筒无毛,先端5裂,裂片长三角形,被毛。开放者,花冠下唇反转。花柱无毛。

      3.山银花:长1.6~3.5厘米,直径0.5~2毫米。萼筒和花冠密被灰白色毛,子房有毛。

      4.毛花柱忍冬:长2.5~4厘米,直径1~2.5毫米,表面淡黄色微带紫色,无毛。花萼裂片短三角形。开放者花冠上唇常不整齐,花柱下部多密被长柔毛。

      【药材理化鉴定】取本品粉末0.2克,加甲醇5毫升,放置12小时,滤过,滤液作为供试品溶液。另取绿原酸对照品,加甲醇制成每1毫升含1毫克的溶液,作为对照品溶液。照薄层色谱法试验,吸取供试品溶液10~20VI,对照品溶液10μl,分别点于同一以羧甲基纤维素钠为粘合剂的硅胶H薄层板上,以醋酸丁酯-甲酸-水(7:2.5:2.5)的上层溶液为展开剂,展开,取出,晾干,在紫外光灯(365纳米)下检视。供试品色谱中,在与对照品色谱相应的位置上,显相同颜色的荧光斑点。

      【生境分布】忍冬生于山坡灌丛或疏林中、乱石堆、山下路旁及村庄篱笆边;分布于辽宁、吉林、河北、山西、陕西、甘肃、河南、湖北、湖南、广东、广西、江苏、浙江、安徽、福建、江西、山东、台湾、云南、贵州、四川等省区;全国各地常见栽培。水忍冬生于水边灌丛中;分布于广东、广西。菰腺忍冬生于灌丛或疏林中;分布于湖北、湖南、广东、广西、浙江、安徽、福建、江西、台湾、云南、贵州、四川等省区。华南忍冬生于丘陵地的山坡、杂木林和灌丛中及平原旷野路旁或河边;分布于广东、海南、广西等省区。

      【采集加工】夏初花开放前采收,干燥;或用硫黄熏后干燥。

      【饮片炮制】除去杂质。

      【性能功用】甘,寒。归肺经心经胃经。清热解毒,凉散风热。用于痈肿疗疮,喉痹,丹毒,热血毒痢,风热感冒,温病发热。内服:6~15克。水煎服。

      【附注】置通风干燥处贮藏。


    最近更新时间:2023-03-31

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